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Traditional Ecological Knowledge代寫


Diversity and multiplicity: 

 As part of your professional toolkit, engaging with new
ways of seeing will help you to recognise diversity of
perspectives and multiplicity of knowledges. It will also
allow you to envision complexity and dynamism. This
will make visible power relationships and the need for
new ways of thinking that can assist just and sustainable
ways of doing.  Recognition of Traditional Ecological
Knowledge offers a prime example of the importance of
recognizing diversity as well as the importance of
engaging actively with the power relations which
accompany this.
In matters such as art ‘seeing is believing’ is easily
replaced with ‘I know what I like’. 
 
Are the complex landscapes of resource management
really so different to complex landscape represented
through ‘art’? 
 
Is there any single, ‘objective’, ‘correct’ way of seeing
a resource management system?
 
Is seeing really believing when it comes
to professional resource management? 
1. Common sense and those ‘Aha moments’
2. Naming and classifying what we see: 
the power of language 
3. Western Science and Traditional Ecological
Knowledge (TEK) 
 
 
 
 2
1. Common sense and those                             
‘Aha moments’
Taken-for-granted, common sense ways of seeing,
thinking and doing
 
To learn, to challenge, to change … an ‘aha’ moment!
 
Many ‘aha’ moments from listening and learning from
Indigenous peoples  - glimpses into different ways of
knowing …
A personal aha moment … 
who is the nomadic wanderer?
 
… one society is highly mobile, with a strong tendency to
both small- and large-scale nomadism
 
… the other is highly settled, tending to stay firmly in one
particular area or territory
 
… stereotypes - “nomadic” hunters and “settled” farmers
 
Hugh Brody 2000
 
 
 
 
 
Towards ‘peripheral vision’
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
... these peripheries need to be included and empowered in
visions of resource futures.
 
A number of explorers envisioned the future potential of the Arctic
for resource development and as transport corridors between
continents ... Their vision arose in an era of conquest and
colonization in which many explorers approached the Arctic with
the central paradigm of the day - that humans could dominate over
the elements of nature. Some, who subscribed fully to views of
European superiority and advancement over the indigenous people,
perished. Others ... valued and used the knowledge and experience
of the Arctic residents. These explorers had what I call peripheral
vision: they were able to view the world around them with
appreciation for different lifeways and adaptations to the
environment (Gail Osherenko (1993:115) emphasis added).  
?  Language reflects, shapes and limits the way we
articulate and understand the world around us. 
 
?  It not only provides the building blocks from which we
construct our way of seeing complex realities, it also
constructs the limits of our vision. 
 
?   Our language renders invisible many things given
importance by other people. 
 
? Language reflects and constructs power.
 
2. Naming and classifying what we see: 
the power of language 3
Wilderness? 
 
National Park? 
 
Photo: Simon Hudson
Photo: Emma Ignjic
Benjamin Duterrau England 1767-1851 
Woureddy, a wild native of Brune Island. 
1835 etching 34.3 x 25.7 cm National Gallery of
Australia, Canberra
  Nature? 
 
Wild native? 
 
Country in Aboriginal English is not only  a common noun but also a
proper noun. People talk about country in the same way they would talk
about a person: they speak to country, sing to country, visit country,
worry about country, feel sorry for country, and long for country. People
say that country knows, hears, smells, takes notice, takes care, is sorry,
is happy. Country is not a generalised or undifferentiated type of
place.... Rather, country is a living entity with a yesterday, today and
tomorrow, with a consciousness, and a will toward life. Because of this
richness, country is home, and peace; nourishment for body, mind, and
spirit; heart’s ease.
(Rose, 1996:7)
 
Country
Ways of seeing are …
ways of knowing
• Be aware of the labels and categories. 
 
• What is rendered important, what is rendered invisible?
 
• Often unaware of dominant focus of resource management systems
- commodities.
 
• Critically evaluate not just information, sources of information, and
uses of information, but the models by which we understand
resources.
 
• Need to reconfigure power relations. 
 
What knowledge is valued and informs resource management decision
making is thus critical in determining whose interests and values
dominate the development process. 
 4
3. Western Science and Traditional
Ecological Knowledge (TEK)
 
? Traditional ecological knowledge  (TEK) 
(also known as Indigenous Knowledge (IK)) is  seen
as an alternative to dominant knowledge system, in
particular Western Scientific Knowledge (WSK).
 
? Wealth of local, site specific knowledge held by
Indigenous and long term residents.
 
? TEK distinguished by its emphasis on stewardship,
connectedness, its appreciation of diversity and
complexity and its ability  to encompass social and legal
dimensions.  It is dynamic, adaptive, contextual.
 
? WSK distinguished by its emphasis on testable
hypotheses and its positivist/reductionist perspective in
which all processes are knowable,  reducible and
measurable.
 
? Definitions challenging, no clear boundaries.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
? There are important issues of context and power:
? TEK continues to be marginalised and seen as
non-technical and ‘unscientific’.
? Appropriation of TEK (use without informed
consent).
? Inappropriate use of TEK (applied out of context;
cherry picking).
 
? Key questions need to be thought through in terms
of relationships, responsibilities and process – not
simply who can get what ...
 
 
The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples recognises:
“... that respect for Indigenous knowledge, cultures and traditional practices contributes to
sustainable and equitable development and proper management of the environment”  (UN
2008: 2)
 
Also see the UN Convention of Biological Diversity 1992 and Principle 22 of the Rio
Declaration.
“Looking after country two-ways” 
(Preuss and Dixon 2012)
• Southern Tanami Indigenous Protected Area (IPA) Development Project (STIPADP),
Central Australia
• 4 year, Federal IPA Program.
• Collaboration, negotiation, knowledge sharing.
 
 
 
 
 
 
In the past our people looked after country ... Now there are new problems coming in ... today
we want to work both ways ... to look after country ... (Statement from Traditional owners
cited in Preuss and Dixon, 2012: 2)
 
We don’t want kardiya to come in with their own picture already painted about how it will
happen ... We need to sit down ... And paint that picture together, yapa and kardiya
together ... (Senior woman, cited in Preuss and Dixon, 2012: 3).
 
• Mismatch and overlap
  WSK – Gov agencies, scientists etc
– values – sites, landscapes, species (biodiversity)
– threats – high intensity wildlfires, weeds, feral animals, soil erosion
IK - Yapa
– values – maintaining relationships between people and  (cultural)                                            
country (and associated livelihoods and environmental conditions)
– threats – death of senior knowledge holders prior to knowledge  transfer,                                                                               
competing obligations and demands (incl .jobs), lack of understanding and valuing of TEK by
non-Indigenous Australians, the complexities involved in knowledge  transfer
• STIPADP – 4 years cross-cultural  participatory planning
– On-country planning
– Participatory workshops
• Created a new institutions for two-way  land management, developed new
governance structures, Warlpiri ranger teams and a plan of management.
 
• 5 principles:
– Start with local priorities
– Allow time and space for deliberative processes
– Partnerships
– Cross-scale governance
– Use of interdisciplinary and cross-cultural methodologies
 5
Muller 2012
‘We never seen one like this galkal (ant) before”.
 
 
• Dhimurru Land Management Aboriginal Corporation  (1992) - two way management
(equality and respect) - Bawa’mirri Galkal Crazy Ant Eradication project.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
“Indigenous knowledge is not simply a collection of facts,
 but a way of life” (Muller 2012)
 
Yama Mununggiritj
painting/map of
Cape Arnhem 
NT Parks and Wildlife
Service image of Cape
Arnhem 
• Awareness and eradication
• CSIRO non-Yolngu project coordinator and Dhimurru Yolngu senior ranger.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
• Significant ontological divide - primacy of ‘science’ and ‘sustainability’ – Yolngu
knowledge can only contribute within those frames.
• Links between ontological dominance and resourcing.
• Relationships and processes fundamental  to success.
• Need for new spaces of engagement and articulation.  
 
“In the Western scientific paradigm  it is assumed that everything can be made sense of
and systems of categorisation can encompass everything ... But Indigenous science
cannot be reducible to an equivalent in Western science, it can not be translated for it
stems from an entirely different ontology”
Ben
•Focused on ant itself
•Cultural awareness
•Struggle to identify TEK
regarding the ant
•Western science based
processes
 
Balupalu
•Always teaching contextual
knowledge
•Ben part of kinship system and
reciprocal relationships
•Expectations of knowledge
sharing not met
 
Ens et al 2012 identify 4 themes from their up to date
collection of papers (EMR Jan 2012):
1. Differences in environmental philosophies which
profoundly shape perceptions of environmental
management.
2. Cross-cultural awareness of different knowledges and
methods.
3. The mechanics of two-way approaches.
4. Operational challenges for Indigenous NCRM
organisations.
 
 
 
 
 
Main Points
• New ways of seeing are required  in order to see, engage with and protect
diversity (both cultural and ecological).
 
• Seeing, like ‘common sense’, is culturally constructed and historically specific.
 
• Language can powerfully  limit and construct our knowledge. The focus of the
dominant resource management paradigm on resource commodities means
diverse epistemologies, concerns and aspirations are rendered invisible.
 
• Resource managers need to develop ‘peripheral vision’ in order to see
complexity, dynamism and power.
 
• ‘Aha’ moments can help us to see the world through different eyes.
 
• TEK is an exemplar of the importance of recognising alternative ways of
knowing.
 
• And an exemplar of how power processes saturate the process which surround
this recognition and the application of the concept. 6
 
 Aurora Native Title Internship Program and
other opportunities  
 
Negotiating
Water
A role play simulation of
cross-cultural negotiations
Negotiating Water
The hypothetical negotiation scenario developed for
this exercise takes place at ‘Palm Gap’ in the
mythical north Australian state of Capricornia.
 
The area is intended to appear as a composite of
many places, without seeking to appropriate specific
characteristics (sacred, political or social) of any
‘real’ places or people.
 
The following graphics, put together by Richie Howitt
and drawn from Palm Valley, Katherine, Mataranka
and Roper River in the NT and  Millstream and the
Hamersley Ranges in WA, are intended to be
evocative rather than prescriptive.
            
•The whole river is sacred from its source to the sea. 
•This view of the Katherine Gorge highlights the nature of sacred geographies. In the role
play, parts of the Palm Gap area look like this. 7
•Where there is
water, the
landscape takes
on a different
character as the
vegetation
softens the
rocky country.
 
•This scene from the
Hamersley Ranges shows
permanent water at a
rockhole in the ranges
•The Palm Gap site is technically the best site for the dam
•Different groups see such landscapes very differently, with some seeing a perfect dam site
and reservoir area, while other see a mythic landscape
•The Palm Gap site is named after the local palm trees
•This photo of the Millstream area on the Fortescue River in WA’s Pilbara region shows one
of several areas around Australia where isolated palm species are remnants of earlier
climate and widespread vegetation assemblages 
•The Palm Gap State Recreation Area has some current
tourist development, but the development of the dam as a proposed recreation
area represents an opportunity for considerable expansion of the existing facilities. This
photograph also shows the Millstream area in WA. 8
•Despite the importance of Aboriginal landscapes to
regional tourism, Aboriginal people have been treated as
marginal to the economy
•Left: spectacular landscape at Watarrka National Park, NT (Kings Canyon). Right: waterfall in
the Hamersley Ranges National Park.
•Although the project is  required for mineral processing,
the advantages of a recreational lake for tourism
development is very attractive
•Here the spectacular stands of Livingstone Palms on the Roper River in southeast Arnhem
Land provide river-based tourism opportunities for local business
•In many arid areas, the development of water storage
areas provides new recreational opportunities.
•Fitting these into the complex existing relations between the social, cultural, economic,
ecological and mythic landscapes, however, is sometimes controversial. This photo from the
Pilbara in WA shows one view of an ideal result.
•Palms and water in arid and tropical areas present
powerful images of luxury.
•Left: tourists at Millstream, WA. Right: advertising image from the hot springs at
Mataranka, NT. 9
•The developmentalist vision …
•Artist’s impression of the dam proposed to meet water supply requirements in the Pilbara by
damming the Harding River near Roebourne, WA. Aboriginal objections avoided construction
on the Fortescue River, which is considered sacred from its source to the sea, but this
proposal was also controversial.
Bibliography
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Bates, P. (2007) Inuit and scientific philosophies about planning, prediction, and uncertainty. Arctic Anthropology 44(2): 87-100.
Berdoulay,  V. (1989) Place, meaning, and discourse in French language geography.  The Power of Place: bringing  together the
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Brody, H. (2000). The Other Side of Eden. Vancouver, Douglas & McIntyre.
Coombes, B. (2007) Postcolonial  conservation  and Kiekie harvest at Morere New Zealand – abstracting  Indigenous knowledge
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Geography  18(2), 163-185.
*******Ecological Management  and Restoration Special Issue on Indigenous Land & Sea Management  (January 2012)
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in the Alaska Beluga Whale Committee. Environmental Conservation 33(4): 306-315.  
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99-117.
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September), 9-21.
Hobson, George  (1992): Traditional knowledge  is science. Northern Perspectives 20(1), 2.
Jackson, S., M. Storrs and J. Morrison 2005. Recognition of Aboriginal  rights, interests and values  in river  research and
management: Perspectives  from Northern Australia. Ecological Management and Restoration 6(2): 105-110.  
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Geographical Research 45(2): 121-129.
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ecological  relationships and new perspectives. Rangeland Journal 32:259-265
Muller, S. 2012. Two Ways’: Bringing Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Knowledges Together  . In J. Weir (ed) Country,
native title and ecology. ANU ePress, Canberra
  
Nesbitt, B., L. Baker, P. Copley, F. Young, and Anangu Pitjantjatjara  Land Management  (2001). Co-operative  cross-
cultural biological surveys  in resource management:  experiences  in the Anangu Pitjantjatjara  lands. In R. Baker, J.
Davies and E. Young  (eds.) Working on Country: Contemporary Indigenous Management of Australia’s Lands and
Coastal Regions. Oxford Uni press, Melbourne: 187-198.
Osherenko, Gail (1993): Using peripheral  vision in the Northern Sea Route: assessing impacts on indigenous peoples.  In:
Proceedings  from the Northern Sea Route Expert Meeting, Tromso, October 1992. (Ed: Simonsen,Henning) Fridtjof
Nansen Institute, Lysaker, Norway, 115-132.
Palmer, L. (2007). Interpreting  'nature':  the politics of engaging with Kakadu as an Aboriginal place. Cultural Geographies,
14(2), 255-273 
Phuthego, T. C. and R. Chanda (2004) Traditional ecological knowledge  and community-based  natural  resource
management:  lessons from a Botswana wildlife management  area. Applied Geography 24(1): 57-76.
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from the Southern Tanami. Ecological Management and Restoration 13(1)2-14.
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February 1992, Ed: Mares,Peter),  34-39. (originally broadcast on "Indian Pacific", ABC Radio National)
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Waitt, G., R. Figueroa and L. McGee (2007). Fissures in the rock: Rethinking pride and shame  in the moral  terrains of
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claim boards. Arctic 59(4): 401-414. 
 
 
Check out e-Reserve  for further reading on TEK
 
• Week 2 lectures – Traditional ecological knowledge
• Nesbitt, B., L. Baker, P. Copley, F. Young and Anangu Pitjantjatjara Land Management 2001
Cooperative cross-cultural biological surveys in resource management: experiences  in the Anangu
Pitjantjatjara lands. In R. Baker, J. Davies and E. Young (eds) Working on country: contemporary
Indigenous management of Australia's Lands and Coastal Regions. Oxford University Press,
Melbourne: 187-198.
• Bates, P. 2007 Inuit and scientific philosophies about planning, prediction, and uncertainty. Arctic
Anthropology 44(2): 87-100.
• Jackson, S., Storrs, M. and Morrison, J. 2005. Recognition of Aboriginal rights, interests and values
in river research and management: Perspectives  from northern Australia. Ecological Management
and Restoration¸ 6(2): 105-110.
• Johnson J. T. and Murton, B. 2007 Re/placing Native Science:  Indigenous voices in contemporary
constructions of nature. Geographical Research 45(2): 121- 129.
• Fernandez-Gimenez, M. E., Huntington, H. P., & Frost, K. J. 2006 Integration or co-optation?
Traditional knowledge and science in the Alaska Beluga Whale Committee. Environmental
Conservation 33(4): 306-315.
• White, G. 2006 Cultures in collision: Traditional knowledge and Euro-Canadian governance
processes  in northern land-claim boards. Arctic 59(4): 401-414.
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