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Unit: Behavioural Foundations for Nursing Practice 400747
School of Nursing & Midwifery
Lecture Notes
Week 4
Theories of Development 1:
Psychodynamic; Behavioural; Social
Lecture objectives
At the completion of this lecture & with further reading, students will be
able to:
Define personality
Describe Freud’s theory of personality – psychoanalytic approach
Understand Erikson’s Theory
Describe the Humanistic approach to personality development:
Discuss Maslow’s theory of personality
Discuss Roger’s theory of personality.
Personality
“an individual’s unique and relatively stable patterns of behaviour, thoughts and
emotions”
“the psychological factors that make people uniquely themselves”
(Baron & Kalsher, 2005, p. 313-314)
Sigmund Freud
Freud’s theory of personality
4 key components:
Levels of consciousness
Structure of personality
Anxiety & defense mechanisms
Psychosexual stages of development (Baron & Kalsher, 2005)
1. Levels of Consciouness
2. Structures of Personality
3. Defence mechanisms
nursing 代寫 
Reactions to anxiety
Psychosexual stages of development
Source of libido satisfaction:
Oral - birth to 1
Anal - 1 to 3
Phallic - 3 to 5
Latency - 5 to puberty
Genital - puberty on..
Criticism of Freud
Based on limited evidence
•nursing 代寫 
Difficult/impossible to provide experimental evidence
Limited by ideas of the time
Overstressed early personality development, and
Biased against females
Erikson’s stage theory (Psychodynamic but a social theory also)
All human beings pass through stages
Emphasis on social development
Each stage of life marked by a conflict/crisis
Only if individuals successfully negotiate stages will they develop
normally.
Fulfillment of stage criteria
Identity Vs role confusion stage in adolescence – Erikson
Must answer following questions for “success”:
Who am I?
What am I really like?
nursing 代寫 
What do I want to become?
Humanistic Theories
“Emphasise personal responsibility”
“Focus on the present”
“Personal growth”
(Baron & Kalsher, 2005, 324)
HUMANISTIC APPROACH
human beings are naturally good
have free will
“phenomenological experience”
Self-actualising Theory
goal directed ( as were Jung and Adler’s theories )
governed by subjective view of reality.
Maslow
Also focused on people who were psychologically healthy
Self-actualised
i.e. reached fullest potential
Peak experiences
(Baron & Kalsher, 2005)
Carl Rogers (1902 - 1987)
Roger’s self theory
Assumption: humans progress to fully functioning persons
i.e. Live life to the fullest
self-actualisation requires acceptance of one’s self
(Baron & Kalsher,2005)
Conditional positive regard
Unconditional positive regard
Role of therapy
The self theory
self-actualisation requires acceptance of one’s self
answer to:
“Who are you” = self concept.
Self
Self, and
personal experience
if congruent = genuine, healthy
not congruent = not genuine,
feel phony
leads to anxiety.
Characteristics of Self-Actualised Persons
Realistic orientation
Acceptance of self, others and the natural world as they are
Spontaneity
Problem centred rather than self-centred
Air of detachment and need for privacy
Autonomous and independent
Tendency to have strong intimate relationships with a few special, loved
people rather than superficial relationships with many people
Peak experiences
feel unity with universe - waves of power & wonder:
Linked to personal growth
Spontaneous
More appreciative of life
Less concerned with problems of everyday life.
(Baron & Kalsher,2005)
Children need
“unconditional positive regard”
conditions of worth
children become rigid and anxious.
Reference
Baron, R. A., & Kalsher, M. J. (2005). Psychology: From science to practice. Boston:
Allyn & Bacon.
Berger, K. (2011). The developing person through the life span (8th ed.). New York:
Worth.
Jones, K., & Creedy, D. (2008). Health and human behaviour (2nd ed.). South
Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Pictures from:
Sdorow, L. M. (1998). Psychology (4th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill.
 

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