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BFNP 2013 Lecture Notes Week 5
1
Unit: Behavioural Foundations for Nursing Practice 400747
School of Nursing & Midwifery
Lecture Notes
Week 5
Theories of Development 3:
Behaviourist and Cognitive development models
Objectives
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To examine key concepts and principles of normal growth and development, and their
application to nursing practice in care of the person.
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To explain the principles associated with behaviourist principles
?澳洲nursing Outlook-4代寫
To describe theories of cognitive development.
Lifespan development
Today, the focus is on understanding behaviourist and cognitive theories of development
across the lifespan which has
implications for the safe:
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planning and
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delivery of individualised and holistic nursing care.
BEHAVIOURISM
Defines learning in terms of observable behaviour
Performance- what a person does (behaviour)
Learning- “a change in behaviour that is a result of one’s experience with the environment”
(Jones & Creedy, 2008, p. 68)
Behaviourists usually explain learning in relation to classical and operant conditioning
John B. Watson (1878-1958)
Argued if psychology was to be a science, it must concentrate on observable behaviour
Little Albert study (Kassin, 2006)
A phobia is “excessive fear of objects or situations” (Baron, 2008, p. 443).
BFNP 2013 Lecture Notes Week 5
2
Classical Conditioning
Learned involuntary or automatic or reflexive response to a stimulus
Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) demonstrated this type of learning in his experiments with dogs
UCS automatically triggers an involuntary, unconditioned response (UCR)
Basic Processes of Classical Conditioning
Acquisition:
establishes or strengthens a CR ( i.e. by repeated CS_UCS pairing > CR)
Extinction:
a CS gradually ceases to elicit a CR when no longer paired with a UCS
Spontaneous Recovery:
Return of a weakened CR to a CS some time after extinction
Basic Principles of Classical Conditioning
Stimulus Generalization: Tendency for stimuli similar to CS to elicit similar conditioned
responses
Stimulus Discrimination: organism learns to respond to certain stimuli but not others (Baron
& Kalsher, 2002, 2005, 2008).
Operant Conditioning
Also called Instrumental Conditioning
Uses consequences to modify occurrence & form of voluntary behaviour
Reinforcers - behaviour enhancers
Punishers -behaviour suppressers
Shaping or successive approximation or Chaining
Used to condition performance which is not currently in the person’s repertoire
Build a behaviour by dividing it into small steps
Teach one at a time until desired behaviour is reached
Learn final behaviour first + reinforcement
2nd behaviour + 1st + reinforcement
BFNP 2013 Lecture Notes Week 5
3
Operant Conditioning: Acquisition & Shaping of Behaviour
Reinforces only one response (e.g. bar press) and eliminates other responses
Reinforces closer and closer approximations to desired behaviour (successful
approximations)
REINFORCEMENT
Event that increases the frequency of occurrence of the behaviour that follows it
Reinforcers are behaviour enhancers
Positive Reinforcement: giving pleasant stimulus when operant response is made
Negative Reinforcement: taking away an unpleasant stimulus when operant response is
made.
Primary Reinforcer: stimulus that naturally strengthens any response preceding it.
Secondary Reinforcer: acquired behaviour enhancer (e.g. money, praise, etc.)
PUNISHMENT
response that causes a behaviour to occur with less frequency
Weakens behaviour
NEVER used in nursing care (see ANMC Code of Ethics, 2006)
Observational or Social Learning or Modeling
Based primarily on the work of Albert Bandura (1925- )
Showed that consequences were not necessary for learning
In the “Bobo Doll” studies, Bandura showed children (3-6yr olds) changed their behaviour
by simply watching others
Social Learning in action
Key factors effecting observational learning
Cognitive development
An understanding of cognitive development is essential for nurses to be able to be both
flexible and appropriate i n their approach to working with individuals and groups across
the lifespan from a range of different cultural contexts.
Cognitive development is concerned with the development of our ability to engage in
higher mental processes to enable us to make reasonable choices and decisions about our
behaviour
BFNP 2013 Lecture Notes Week 5
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Includes reasoning, judging, problem-solving, deciding, comparing, and all other ways we
have to deal with information
(Jones & Creedy, 2008, p. 113).
Cognition is defined as:
“…the mental activities associated with thought, decision making, language, and
other higher mental processes” (Baron & Kalsher, 2008, p. 220).
Piaget – theory of cognitive development
Stage 1 – Sensorimotor Stage
Birth to nearly 2 years
Experiences world through senses
Object permanence
Stranger anxiety
(Baron & Kalsher, 2005).
Stage 2 – Preoperational Stage
About 2 to 6 or 7 years
Develops language
Aware of self
Can represent object by words and other symbols
Pretend play
Lack the concept of conservation
Unable to perform operations
Egocentric – often persists into adulthood
(Baron & Kalsher, 2005)
Stage 3 – Concrete Operational Stage
Approximately 7 to 10 years
Conservation of:
Mass
Numbers
Volume
Can reverse operations :8 + 4 = 12, 12 – 4 =8
Experience problems with reasoning regarding abstract concepts and hypothetical
situations. (Baron & Kalsher, 2005)
Conservation
Conservation
BFNP 2013 Lecture Notes Week 5
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Stage 4 – Formal Operations
10 to 11 years onwards
Abstract logic
Capable of solving hypothetical propositions
Deducing and understanding consequences
(Baron & Kalsher, 2005)
See the critiques of Piaget’s theory in Jones & Creedy, 2008, p. 166
Moral development
Research on moral development suggests that it is part dependant on healthy cognitive
development.
Is also influenced by social learning of culture, norms.
Is also influenced by patterns of reinforcement in society (parenting).
Is also influenced by laws and customs.
Specific theories are Kohlberg or Gilligan (1982)
Kohlberg’s moral reasoning
In nursing practice, ethical and moral standards of conduct are guided by the Code of Ethics
(2008).
Modelling, operant conditioning principles, and being able to think critically about practice
are important aspects of nurses being able to manage ethical dilemmas, moral distress and
decision-making.
Reference List
Baron, R. A., & Kalsher, M. J. (2005). Psychology: From science to practice. Sydney: Allyn &
Unwin.
Berger, K. (2011). The developing person through the life span. New York: Worth.
Hoffnung, M., Hoffnung, R.J., Seifert, K.L., Smith, R.B., Hine, A., Ward, L. & Quinn, A. (2010).
Lifespan Development,
Milton:
John Wiley & Sons.
Jones, K. & Creedy, S. (2008). Health and human behaviour (2nd ed.). South Melbourne:
Oxford University Press.
Kassin, S. (2006). Psychology in modules. Upper Saddle River: Pearson.
Lahey, B. (1998). Psychology: an introduction (6th Ed.). Dubuque: McGraw-Hill.
Talbot, L., & Verrinder, G. (2005). Promoting health: The Primary Health Care Approach.
Marrickville: Churchill Livingstone.
 

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