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SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RESEARCH代寫

 
SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RESEARCH
 
Howitt and Julian (2009) - Second Edition p22-36, p124 – 132, 157 – 159  
 
Research is a process or means by which we come to understand the natural and social world and thus develop explanations for what happens in it. (Aspin L (1996) Focus on Australian Society
 
Research is a process that starts with people asking questions, and then setting out to answer them.  It gives a picture of the real world.
 
 
 
 Studysmart: Aspin – Research methodologies. Part 1
 
Read page 1 & 2 of “Methods of Studying Society”
 
It has been argued that the conduct of research in the social sciences has some things in common (similarities) with research in the natural sciences (e.g. physics, chemistry) but some important differences. These differences create some special problems for the researcher.
 
Ø Answer the following questions:
 
1.     Why do we do social research?
 
 
 
2.     Why do we use more than one type (technique/method) of research?
 
 
 
3.     Can we define sociology as a science?
 
 
 
4.     What is meant by “values” (see vocabulary at back of chapter)?  How do you think they will affect research?
 
 
5.     What is scientific method?
 
 
 
 
6.     Why do you think “results of research should never be accepted uncritically”?
 
 
 
 
 
7.     What are the two purposes for studying scientific method?
 
 
 
Read pp. 22 – 24 “Methods of Studying Society” Aspin, L.
Components of scientific method  - Then answer the questions in:
 
 
 Studysmart: Aspin – Research methodologies. Part 3
 
 
Page 40 Questions 1 – 8 (Excluding question 5).
 

The Research Process
Complete the following using H & J Text p22 & p122:
Defining:                            
 
 
Locating:
 
 
Selecting:
 
 
Synthesising:
 
 
Presenting:
 
 
Evaluating:
 
 
In what ways does this diagram agree with the steps outlined in the Aspin Reading? What are the key things about BOTH approaches to designing a research project?
Ethical Research
Search for a definition…..
1.    Social and cultural research must include ethics, that means _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 
2.     Explain each of the following examples of ethical practices:
·        Confidentiality
 
·        Safety
 
·        Sensitivity
 
·        Combinations of above
 


Methodologies
Primary research (text p157) is ______________________________________________________________
Examples include _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 
One of the main reasons for conducting primary research is to find information that is not available from other sources that have already been documented.  Primary research is also very important when you are examining a particular case study.
 
 
 
Secondary research is _______________________________________________________________
Examples include _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 
Secondary Research
 
 
 
What should you consider when accessing internet based secondary research?
 

Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methodologies
(p 23 text)
 
In conducting your research you may choose to use both quantitative and qualitative data.
1.   The main reason for using quantitative research methods is __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 
2.   Qualitative research aims to study __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 
Comparison of Qualitative and Quantitative Research methods.
 
Type of Research Advantages Disadvantages
Qualitative  
 
 
 
 
 
 
Quantitative  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Insert Methodologies chart from BOS…
Methodologies
 
Interviews
 
The difference between structured and unstructured interviews is:

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 
                                                                       
Structured Interviews
 
1.                 What is a structured interview?
 
 
 
2.                 When would a structured interview methodology be used?
 
 
 
 
3.                 What should you consider before interviewing a respondent?
 
 
Unstructured Interviews
 
1.                 What is an unstructured interview?
 
 
 
2.                 When might it be more appropriate to use an unstructured interview methodology?
 
 
 
3.                 Can you think of an example where you would like to interview someone using this methodology?
 
Aspin, L, (1996) pp27-28
Type of Interview Benefits Disadvantages
 
 
Unstructured
 
 
   
 
 
Structured
 
 
   
 
What is a structured (closed) question? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Focus Groups
 
1.                 What is a focus group and what is the benefit of using focus groups in social research?
 
 
 
 
2.        What is the central purpose of a focus group?
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Questionnaires
 
A questionnaire is a collection of questions related to your specific topic that are printed, copied and distributed to a sample of respondents through the post, on the Internet, or random distribution by hand.  Responses to closed questions, such as YES/NO, or multiple responses (“boxed” alternatives) to tick can be collated and turned into measurable statistics.
 
Using Aspin, L (1996) pp26-27 fill in the following chart:
 
Some basic rules in the use and design of any questionnaire
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Types of questions:
 
Questions used in a questionnaire can be classified as:
 
a.     ____________________
 
b.     ____________________
 
Disadvantages:
 
_________________________ are used to restrict the range of answers given and to help in analysis.
 
 
 
1.     When writing questions you should try and remain __________ or neutral. The following questions use emotive language. Can you rewrite them so that they use more objective language?
 
·        “Australians should not have to tolerate barbaric attitudes brought out by her new immigrants? Do you agree or disagree?”
 
 
·        “Do you think that the government should stop giving handouts to dole bludgers?
 
 
 
2.     Your question also needs clarity. That is, it must be __________ by the respondent. Rewrite this question so that it has greater clarity.
 
·        “Who do you think is more successful – boys or girls?”
 
 
 
 
3.     How should you determine WHO to administer your questionnaire to?   
 
 
 
4.     Suggest the best selection method of respondents for the following topics:
 
·        Attitudes towards living in Sydney
·        Experiences of overseas students in Australia
·        Importance of religious beliefs in our daily lives
·        Teenage girls’ involvement in sports games
 
5.     Write an open ended question for the selection of holiday destinations by backpackers.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Surveys
 
1.   What is the difference between a questionnaire and a survey?
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Observation
 
What is the difference between participant observation and non participant observation?
 
 
 
 
Using a data-recording sheet  
 
1.   Why use a data recording sheet for this methodology?
 
 
 
 
2.       Construct a simple data recording sheet for one of the following research topics:
 
Popular shoe colours at Taylors in 2008.
 
OR
 
Lateness to class at Taylors College
 


Personal Reflection
 
1.                 What is ‘personal reflection’?
 
 
 
 
2.                 How is personal reflection viewed by social researchers?
 
 
 
 
 
3.                 Should it be included in our methodologies? Why/not?
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Case Study and Ethnographic Study
 
What is the benefit of using case studies?
 
 
 
Give two examples of a topic that may utilize a case study approach?
 
 
 
 
What is an ‘ethnographic study’?
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
What is the difference between an ethnographic study and a case study?
 
 
 
 
 

 
Statistical Analysis
 
Examining data to interpret meaning, make generalizations and work out trends.  Often data comes in graphical form.  Evaluation and interpretation uses statistical or mathematical procedures.                                                            
                                                                                   
 
1.     What simple mathematical calculation can enable us to report our results more clearly?
 
2.     Refer to the raw data below to explain why it is useful to use some              calculation other than the raw figures collected.
 
Raw Data – preferred car colour
red cars 2340
yellow cars 23
white cars 4000
silver cars 1206
blue cars 876
Other 56
Total:  
 
 
 
 
 
“Be sure to examine your results from at least two perspectives”.
3.     What does this mean and why is it useful?
 
 
 
 
 
4.     Using the material from the table above – write up your data analysis on preferred car colours.
 
Content Analysis
 
In content analysis you are focusing on bias that may appear in secondary sources such as television shows or newspapers.
 
 
What do you think is the role of content analysis in the process of social and cultural research?
 
 
Give an example of a content analysis that you could do.
 
 
 
 
 
Action Research
 
Anthony is a student at an inner city school. He begins to grow tired of racist remarks being made to overseas students at school especially at the bus stop in the afternoon. Anthony finds the remarks offensive and realizes that they are inappropriate and upsetting.
Anthony intends to carry out action research and identifies the problem of racism with a  view to eliminating such behaviour, or at least to highlight the behaviour of certain individuals with a goal to reduce racism at his school.
Anthony would probably raise awareness of racism by carrying out surveys, interviews and focus groups. By bringing attention to such behaviour Anthony may help students to understand what constitutes racist remarks. Towards the end of his research he may be able to research whether there has been a decline in racist behaviour and suggest strategies for students and his school to further reduce such behaviour.
Donnelly (2008) Society and Culture p139
 
 
1.          What is meant by the term ‘action research’?
 
 
 Read the above example of Anthony from p139 Donnelly (2008).
2.     What was the problem that Anthony wanted to try and solve? How might he  have used the research process to do this? How would he be able to    evaluate the effectiveness of his strategy?
 
Presenting Quantitative Research
You have collected your information an now you must present your findings.  Use the table below to describe a variety of ways suitable for presenting quantitative research data (give examples). Aspin,L (1996)
Format Explanation/Description
Tables  
 
 
Graphs – line and bar  
 
 
 
Histograms  
 
 
 
Population Pyramids  
 
 
 
Scatter graphs  
 
 
 
Pie Charts  
 
 
 

SUMMARY OF ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
OF
QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES.
  Advantages Disadvantages
 
 
 
 
Quantitative
 
 
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
Qualitative
 
 
 
 
 
   

 
Notes:

   Pilot Study
 
A pilot study is a small scale study undertaken before a full scale study. It is done to identify any faults or problems with the initial research design, to test the respondents understanding of the language used in the questions and to find out how long the survey or questionnaire will take.
 
1.     Why is it very important to undertake a pilot study before beginning a large research project?
 
 
2.     Who could you use in a pilot study?
 
 
 
 
Sample or Survey Group
Where it is not possible to survey everyone, sampling is useful. A sample of less than 50 in a population of 1000 is not usually very reliable. In order to make it worthwhile and meaningful a random procedure should be used.
 
      What is a sample (or survey group)?
 
 
 
 
 
 
Activity:
Group Presentations
Using the relevant sections of  your textbook (Howitt and Julian) and Chapter 2 of Australian Society (Second Edition) by Lois J Aspin in conjunction with research on the internet, make a group presentation on one of the following research methodologies (each group should present research on a different methodology);
 
1.   Observation
2.   Pilot Study
3.   Structured Interview
4.   Unstructured Interview
5.   Focus Group
6.   Case study (make sure it is a social science case study)
7.   Content analysis
 
You need to search the web to find a relevant piece of research to help, to illustrate how your methodology is used in practice. You could try by limiting your search to in google advanced search and to the domain .edu so that most of the results you find will have been produced by colleges and universities.
Try searching for an area of social research your group is interested in and combining those keywords with the methodological term (above) that you have been assigned and perhaps the word methodology.
You need to find a piece of research that is at least 3 pages long.
You should show the research paper to your teacher before making the presentation.
Follow the structure on the next page.
                                                                                                                                  
Group Presentations
Address the following questions and prepare your notes on separate worksheets:
Introduction (explain that you are going to give an account of the methodology you have been assigned and, outline the piece of research you will use as an example).
 
1.     What is the area of study?
 
 
2.     What is the focus of the research?
 
 
3.     What hypothesis/ question were the researchers investigating?
 
 
4.     Give an overview of the research generally
 
 
5.     Explain the methodology you have been assigned (use the text book and the Aspin reference for this)
 
 
6.     Explain how the piece of research you found on the net uses this methodology
 
 
7.     Consider alternative methodologies that were not used (see 1-7 on previous page).  For each methodology discuss why you think it was not selected by the researchers? Were they right to use the methodology that they chose?
 
 
8.     How was the data presented?

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