澳洲論文代寫 > essay代寫 > 堪培拉essay代寫 > > 正文

堪培拉essay代寫

Categorical and relational代寫

1
PART III: WAYS OF THINKING 
Lecture 5
13 March, 2012

thinking

Native title – a contested terrain
Mick Dodson interview for 'Judgement Day‘ show on 4 Corners.
 
• Native title rights owe their existence and content to traditional
Aboriginal laws and customs, which can vary from one Aboriginal
group to another. 
• Native title rights are held communally by the members of the
Aboriginal group whose traditional laws and customs gave rise to
them. 
• Native title rights can not be assigned or transferred, although they
can be surrendered to the Crown and, in certain circumstances, they
can be extinguished. 
• Native title rights are not granted - they are inherited in accordance
with the traditional laws and customs of the Aboriginal people
concerned.
(from van Hattem (1997), De-mystifying Native Title

 
 
Native title – where it came from  
• 1992 Eddie Mabo - First Australians
– Mabo No 2: a High Court decision that prompted the government to pass the Native Title Act 1993 – that came in to effect in 1994.  
– So NT existed in common law of Australia since 1992, and through statute 1994.  
• Huge uproar – threat to sovereignty.  Overturn terra nullius – land
without people who own country
• Extinguishment
– "Where the Crown has validly alienated land by granting an interest that is wholly
or partially inconsistent with a continuing right to enjoy native title, native title is
extinguished to the extent of the inconsistency. Thus native title has been
extinguished by the grants of estates of freehold or of leases but not necessarily
by the grant of lesser interests.“ 40% of Australia ‘safe’ from claims
• Wik decision in 1997 – said native title rights had survived the grant
of the pastoral leases, and that the mining leases were valid
• Howard instigated the Native Title Amendment Act 1998 – 10 Point
Plan
 
 2
10 point plan
• The ten points were as follows:
• The National Native Title Tribunal holds absolute authority over claims for
NT
• State governments are empowered  to extinguish Native Title over crown
lands for matters of 'national  interest'
• Lands providing public amenities are exempt from Native Title claims
• Mining and pastoral leases are allowed  to co-exist with Native Title
• The National Native Title Tribunal can create access to traditional  lands
rather than granting full Native Title
• A registration test is imposed on all claimants
• The right to claim Native Title in or around urban areas is removed
• Government is permitted to manage land, water, and air issues in any site
• Very strict time limits will be placed on all claims
• Indigenous Land Use Agreements with be created to promote co-existence
 
Landmark NT claims
Judgement Day - 4 Corners
 
Griffiths NT 2007:
  The right to have access to and use the natural water of the determination
area, to teach the physical and spiritual attributes of places and areas of
importance on or in the land and waters.
Ward WA 2002
  ‘Bundle of rights’ notion – overturn earlier exclusive possession decision
Yorta Yorta Vic 1998-2002
   The determination by Justice Olney in 1998 ruled that the ‘tide of history’
had ‘washed away’ any real acknowledgement of traditional  laws and any
real observance of traditional customs by the applicants. The 2002 High
Court decision adopted strict requirements of continuity of traditional  laws
and customs for native title claims to succeed.  Making northern Australia
claims only likely  to substantially succeed hereon.  
Issues around NT
• Essentialise Indigenous identity –
traditional and unchanging
• Extremely hard to prove
• One step towards a national land rights
scheme, but a project abandoned
• Many claims – slow process
• Still, and always will be, political and
contested
  Seeing  multiplicity, complexity, dynamism
and power can be overwhelming … so we
need conceptual frameworks (effective
ways of thinking) to assist us… 3
Step 1:
Ways of Seeing
Step 2:
Ways of Thinking
Step 3:
Ways of Doing
Recognising multiple
perspectives and
knowledges
Seeing complexity, dynamism,
power and context
Context
Focus
Purpose
Relational approach 
- construction of
knowledge
- internal relationships
Hall of
mirrors
Part III: 
Ways of Thinking
Lecture 5 – Categorical and relational thinking
 
Lecture 6 – Relational thinking and webs of connections in the Ord,
East Kimberley
 
Lecture 7 – Relational thinking and scale
 
Lecture 8 – Relational thinking and power
 
Lecture 9 – Postcolonial contexts: a ‘hall of mirrors’ 
 
Lecture 10 – Situated engagement: transforming the mirrors
 
Abstract
  This lecture focuses on aspects of social theory of
relevance to resource management. The lecture
outlines the differences between categorical and
relational thinking. It argues that the task of
resource management would be greatly improved if
resource managers adopt a relational framework.
A relational way of thinking – based on dialectics, a
philosophy of internal relations, and an explicit
recognition of abstraction – helps resource
managers  think about multiplicity, complexity,
dynamism and power more effectively, and practice
resource management without reinforcing unjust
power relationships.
OUTLINE
 
1. Towards relational (dialectical) thinking
? categorical and relational models
 
2. The philosophy of internal relations
 
 
3. Processes of abstraction: focus, context and
position (next lecture) 4
1. Towards relational (dialectical) thinking
Do you think about thinking?
How do you think you think?
The construction of knowledge
 
 The Universe ... is an unsettlingly big place, a fact which for the
sake of a quiet life most people tend to ignore (Adams 1980:58).
 The ontology to which each of us subscribes is so utterly
familiar that few of us ever hear or use the word. Our reality is
so certain to admit no alternatives, that we have trouble in
accepting it, with any sincerity, as just one possible version of
reality, believing it in our heart of hearts, to be the only
possible reality (Christie, 1992:1).
... our knowledge of the real world is mediated through the
construction of concepts in which to think about it; our
contact with reality ... is contact with a conceptualized reality
(Ollman, 1976: 12).
Categorical Thinking
? Categories used to describe and explain ‘reality’ 
? Exist independently of human thought
? Neutral vehicles to carry specific parts of a larger story
? Discrete, mutually exclusive, categorically bounded
C
A
not "C"
B
A categorical approach to taxonomy
'Mineral'
All Non-Living Things
Individual
Species
Genus
Phylum
Animal Vegetable
All Living Things
All Things5
What are some other examples of categorical
thinking in NRM?
 … but what if …  ?
• We think about boundaries differently?
• We think about relationships differently?
• We think about processes differently?
• We think about scales differently?
 
• What if we think about the purpose of the institutions,
actions and ethics of resource management systems
differently?
 
• Remember the question in Week 1 – what do you think
should define the word ‘better’ in the phrase ‘better
resource management’ – that question pushes you to think
about values, meaning and purpose with more clarity.
? To engage with complexity without being
overwhelmed by it
? think simultaneously at multiple scales
?To engage with processes of interaction and change 
? rigorously analyse linkages
? To sustain a practical focus within the context of
bigger issues
? To develop robust, coherent and accountable
thinking
? foundations for effective and justifiable action
? To Integrate thinking, feeling and acting in
responsible and sustainable ways
 
The challenge is to …
Relational or dialectical thinking
Systems thinking in which we:
? Focus on relationships and processes (within and between)
– the arrows rather than the boxes.
 
? Still use categories but these are seen as constructions that
shift and shimmy – not seen as static constants or neutral
universals.
 
? Focus on complex, multidirectional, simultaneous
(overdetermined) processes and influences – not
unidirectional cause & effect.
 
? Acknowledge that change and interaction rather than
stability, equilibrium and stasis are ‘normal’
 
? Coherently and rigorously address changes over space and
time. 
 
 6
2. The philosophy of internal relations
More than externalities
• Not only relationships between ‘things’ –
external relations, but relationships within
‘things’ – internal relations. 
• The relationship is not seen as separate from
the thing!
• History conceptualised in terms of not something
that happens to a thing but rather a part of what a
thing is becoming is part of what it was.
“Each part is viewed as incorporating in what it is
all its relations with other parts up to and
including everything that comes into the
whole”. (Ollman, 1993:35) 
Basic features of 
relational/dialetical thinking
(from Howitt, 2001:120).
Quality  Explanation
Identity/difference  Elements of both identity and difference co-
exist in most things – depending on how you
look at them, or WHY one does!
Transformation of
quantity  to quality
Continuing quantitative change will produce a
qualitatively new entity
Interpenetration of
opposites
Intimate relation that exists between opposites
– eg positive and negative.  And that any
contrasting observation depends on the point
of view of the observer.  NOT ABSOLUTE
RELATIVISM THOUGH.  
Development
through contradiction
View of history which posits past-present-
future continuum
The totality of the ‘system’ is:
– contained within each of its constituent elements; and 
–each of the constituent elements is present in the totality in all
its permutations.  
–The relationships between the various elements are
internalised both within the total system, and each of its
constituent elements. 
 
This is the notion underlying William Blake’s powerful
poetic vision of the "world in a grain of sand”
To see a World in a Grain of Sand
And a Heaven in a Wild Flower,
Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand
And Eternity in an hour
(Blake, Auguries of Innocence)
Ideas in the dominant culture
are seen as tightly bound,
separate entities. They are
hard to penetrate …
Student assignment in Resource Management
(© Natalie Smith 2000, used with permission)
Photographs of Natalie Smith’s “Scale and Complexity” installation       
– her final assignment in Resource Management.
… and held to be
categorically located in space
and time in quantifiable,
causal relationships with
each other. 7
Dealt with relationally and viewed from different vantage points, ideas
such as scale, place, culture and landscape unravel and interweave in
different ways, to present us with new ways of seeing things.
<标题> (©Natalie Smith 2000, used with permission)

tag:

Contact us / 聯系我們

QQ: 273427
QQ: 273427

Online Service / 在線客服

Hours / 服務時間
全天24小時為您服務

熱情 專業 誠信 守時
Copyright ? 2008-2018 assignment代寫

在線客服

售前咨詢
售后咨詢
微信號
Badgeniuscs
微信

在線客服

售前咨詢
售后咨詢
微信號
Badgeniuscs
微信
英国代写_数学代写_c++/c代写_留学生代写怎么查出来?