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Resource Management Toolkit 代寫

1
Lecture 2
ENVG340
27th February, 2013
A
ABSTRACT
Natural resources are embedded in social processes and
relationships and are simultaneously constructed by the
same processes and relationships. 
To recognise and deal with complex and dynamic resource
management systems, resource managers need a
professional toolkit which helps them to see, think and do
things differently. 
This toolkit will support ‘better’ resource management
processes and outcomes. In the context of ENVG340 ‘better’
resource management involves a consideration of specific
values such as social justice, ecological sustainability,
economic equity and cultural diversity.
Lecture outline
1.? What are resources?
2.? A professional literacy and the resource management
toolkit
3.? Personalising your toolkit
1.?
What are resources?
Thinking back to 118 and 267 write down your own
working definition of RESOURCES as a ‘keyword’

2
Di?erent( cultures( construct( di?erent( ideas( about( ‘resources’(
and(‘management’.(
The(concept(of(resources(can(become(‘naturalised’. (
The( consequences( and( impacts( of( resource( management(
decisions(are(o;en(invisible(to(resource(managers.(
Constructing and naturalising resources ...
Resources are ... about relationships
Resource management not simply about pre-existing ‘things’. 
Resources defined according to relationships ~ economic, cultural,
political and physical.
Early resource economists like Zimmerman in the 1930s and Spoehr in the
1950s defined resources in terms of the interplay of environment, culture,
economy and technology:
It is doubtful that many other societies ... think about natural resources in
the same way we do. It is probable that the term itself ... is primarily a
product of our own industrial civilization (Spoehr 1956:3). 
Resources are ... about power
•? Resource  management  systems  simultaneously  produce  both
commodities and power. 
•? Power and space  -  resources and  their management are central  to all
political  processes  often  unevenly  transforming  places  and
peoples. 
•? Power and time - resource landscapes reflect many previous layers of
history.
•? A new professional literacy is required which:
–? addresses the transformational politics of resource management,
–? understands and responds to new geographies of resource
management, and 
–? contributes to sustainable and just human futures.
•?  
Resources are central to ‘politics’
Conflicts  over  resources  influence  political,  social  and  economic
processes  throughout  the  world.  Resources  and  their
management are central to all political processes. 
“Politics consists of all the activities of cooperation and conflict,
within and between societies, whereby the human species goes
about obtaining, using, producing and distributing resources in
the production and reproduction of its social and biological life”
(Leftwich 1983:11).
What do you think Leftwich means when he puts “resources” at
the centre of human politics and the production and reproduction
of social and biological life? 
Do you agree with this? 3
2. A professional literacy and the
resource management toolkit
Understanding the nature of environmental problems and how
they might be solved requires more than a scientific appreciation
of environmental processes. It demands an understanding of how
societies work and how collective action within those societies is
both organised and constrained (Johnston 1989: 199)
•?  What tools do people currently have?
•?  The ENVG340 toolkit - help you see, think and do
differently …
–?  Making sense of 340
–?  Contributing to your assignments
–?  Using beyond 340: life and professional practice
The ENVG340 Toolkit
Step 1:
Ways of Seeing
Step 2:
Ways of Thinking
Step 3:
Ways of Doing
Step 1:
Ways of Seeing
Step 2:
Ways of Thinking
Step 3:
Ways of Doing
This ‘toolkit’ underpins the unit structure
Part I: Introduction (and disorientation)
Part II: Ways of Seeing  
Part III: Ways of Thinking
Part IV: From Thinking to Doing     
Part V: Ways of Doing 
Part VI: Conclusion and Re-orientation  
Step 1:
Ways of Seeing
Step 2:
Ways of Thinking
Step 3:
Ways of Doing
Seeing(complexity,(dynamism,(rela@onships,(
power,(processes,(scale(and(context(
Recognising(mul@ple(perspec@ves((
and(knowledges(
The ENVG340 toolkit: ways of seeing 4
Complex and Dynamic
Resource Management
Systems
Ecological
Systems
Profit-seeking
Enterprises
Diverse
Publics
Management
Agencies
Complex and Dynamic
Resource Management
Systems
Ecological
Systems
Profit-seeking
Enterprises
Diverse
Publics
Step 1:
Ways of Seeing
Step 2:
Ways of Thinking
Step 3:
Ways of Doing
Abstrac0on:2
Context2
Focus2
Purpose2
Rela0onal2approach22
:2construc0on2of2knowledge2
:2internal2rela0onships2
Interac0ng,2mul0direc0onal,2internal,2simultaneous,2
interdependent,2con0nuing2
Hall2of2
mirrors2
The ENVG340 toolkit: ways of thinking
•?  Relational approach –  
focus, context and purpose
•?  Hall of Mirrors – 
assumptions and power
Relations, mirrors and power 
 
•?  Relational approach – focus, context and purpose
•?  Hall of Mirrors – assumptions and power
Relations, mirrors and power  5
Step 1:
Ways of Seeing
Step 2:
Ways of Thinking
Step 3:
Ways of Doing
Professional practice
and diverse
professional literacy
Doing it better:
4 core values
Situated
engagement 
The ENVG340 toolkit: ways of doing
Resource management as a field of practice:
situated engagement
•? Lecture series (participation, power and ethics)
•? Readings and assignment research
•? Tutorial program: practising resource management
–? Setting the terms of engagement 
–? Hall of mirrors
–? Transforming mirrors into windows 
–? Situated engagement
–? Reflections on reflections
Core Values for Resource Management practice 
What do you think would constitute ‘better’ resource management?
‘Better’ resource management?
•? The answer depends on what one means by ‘better’
… 
•?  Is ‘better’ a measurable ‘more’?
•? If the complex becomes simple and the value-laden
objective, can lose sight of the underlying purpose of
managing resources.
•?  What about the question of ‘why’ rather than ‘how’? 6
In ENVG340, questions of underlying purpose - the ‘why?’ of
resource management - are addressed in terms of four core
values. 
‘Successful’ resource management achieves sustainable
improvements in human lives in terms of:
–?  social justice
–?  ecological sustainability
–?  economic equity
–?  cultural diversity
The2‘why’2of2resource2management2
Step 1:
Ways of Seeing
Step 2:
Ways of Thinking
Step 3:
Ways of Doing
Recognising(mul@ple(
perspec@ves(and(
knowledges(
Seeing(complexity,(dynamism,(
rela@onships,(processes,(scale(
and(context(
Context(
Focus(
Purpose(
Rela@onal(approach((
H(construc@on(of(
knowledge(
H(internal(rela@onships(
Interac@ng,(mul@direc@onal,(
internal,(simultaneous,(
interdependent,(con@nuing(
Hall(of(
mirrors(
Professional(
prac@ce(and(
diverse(
professional(
literacy(
Doing(it(beKer:(
4(core(values(
Situated(
engagement(
3. Personalising your toolkit
Student assignment in Resource Management
(© Sally Northover 2000, used with permission)
One student’s view of the
Resource Managers’ toolkit
discussed in ENVG340. Her kit
includes essential items such as
multicultural spectacles, cultural
paintbrush, economic screwdriver
and ethics glove.
Pages from the User’s Manual in Sally Northover’s “Essential Toolkit” assignment
(© Sally Northover 2000, used with permission) 7
Thinking outside the (tool)box …  
•? expand our ways of seeing, thinking and doing to new
conceptual and practical pIaces.
•? critical engagement with the values that are specifically
formulated and proposed in the context of ENVG340
•? using our (geographical) imagination to formulate the
unimaginable…
Summary
•? Resources are socially constructed and embedded within a
complex web of social, political, economic and ecological
relations and processes
•? They are ideas and relationships as well as ‘things’
•? There is a politics associated with resource management
systems
•? To achieve ‘better’ resource management, resource managers
require a toolkit to assist them to see, think and do differently
•? Clear articulation of core values makes us aware of the
purpose (the why?) of resource management
Bibliography
Johnston, R. (1989) Environmental Problems: Nature, Economy and State.
Belhaven Press, London.
Leftwich, A. (1983) Redefining Politics: people, resources and power.
Methuen, London.
Spoehr, A. (1956) Cultural differences in the interpretation of natural
resources. Man's role in changing of the face of the Earth. W. L. Thomas.
Wenner-Gren Foundation, National Science Foundation, Chicago
University Press, Chicago: 93-102.
Zimmerman, E. (1933) Introduction to World Resources. Harper & Row,
New York (Republished 1964, Hunker H (ed.)) 
Recommended (actually – REQUIRED) Reading:
Howitt, R. (2001) Rethinking Resource Management: Justice, Sustainability
and Indigenous Peoples. Routledge, London CHAPTER ONE
Howitt, R. (2010) Sustainable indigenous futures in remote Indigenous
areas: relationships, processes and failed state approaches. GeoJournal
DOI 10.1007/s10708-010-9377-3. 
see -
Online_First.pdf 

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