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Is seeing believing? 
 Complexity, dynamism and
power
 
Lecture 3
6th March 2013
Acknowledgements
This presentation  includes several  images that are  reproduced with.
These images are not available  for further reproduction.
William Robinson Sunshowers and Floodgums (Reproduced with the kind permission of the artist and
Ray Hughes Gallery, Sydney)
Fred Williams Forest 1958 [20.0x14.5cm] Etching, aquatint, engraving,  pencil, National Gallery Canberra
Fred Williams Red Trees 1958 [20.0x14.6cm] Etching, aquatint, engraving,  finepoint, National Gallery
Canberra
M.C. Escher Day and Night © 2000 Cordon Art BV – Baarn – Holland. All rights reserved.
Step 1:
Ways of Seeing
Step 2:
Ways of Thinking
Step 3:
Ways of Doing
Seeing complexity, dynamism,
power and context
Recognising multiple perspectives
and knowledges
The ENVG340 toolkit: ways of seeing
  Abstract
   As part of your professional toolkit, engaging
with new ways of seeing will help you to
recognise diversity of perspectives and
multiplicity of knowledges. It will also allow
you to envision complexity and dynamism.
This will make visible power relationships and
the need for new ways of thinking that can
assist just and sustainable ways of doing. 
Lecture Outline
1. Human Geography in your toolkit –
helping us see diversity and multiplicity
2. Is seeing believing? 
3. Assignment 1 ~ professional
submission 2
1. Human geography in your toolkit
What is human geography?
 
Geography matters:
• distance, its measurement, connotations and appreciation
• movement
• senses and meaning of place
• geographical differentiation
• symbolism and meaning which different societies and groups
attach to these things (Doreen Massey 1984:5).
 
Space, place, scale and relationships between people and their
environments  (and environments and their people).
Human geography and ways of seeing 
• Multi-disciplinary approach
• Bridges social and biophysical sciences
• Methodologically pluralistic 
• Theoretically engaged yet field-oriented
2. Is seeing believing?
-- visually oriented society
-- emphasis on sense of sight
-- belief in a sense of objectivity
Creator of this image unknown.
 If the creator would  like  to be acknowledged  please contact me on jessica.mclean@mq.edu.au
“Seeing is believing”?
 3
Creator of this image unknown.
 If the creator would  like  to be acknowledged  please contact me on jessica.mclean@mq.edu.au
Is the flying insect about to drop a rock on the raccoon’s head?
 
  
‘Sunshowers and flood gums’ (© William Robinson)
reproduced with permission of the artist.
Diversity of perspectives: The visual arts constantly remind us
that ‘seeing’ involves perception ...
“I paint as if I’m
going for a
walk – looking
up at the trees,
peering down
into the creek.
The intent
makes the
magic” 
(William
Robinson)
Seeing the forest or the trees? The art of Fred Williams presents some perceptual challenges.
Left: Forest, 1st state (1958); Right: Red Trees, 1st state (1958).
Reproduced with permission of the National Gallery of Victoria.
Simultaneity and co-existence 4
Escher’s Night and Day
Many aspects of material reality interpenetrate and mutually constitute
each other, with the one being inseparable from the others.
Multiplicity of knowledges:
There are multiple ways to construct
knowledge and what one sees too ...
Different ways of thinking.
Mat weaving tells how a person is connected and where we
belong. Our kinship system maps out our relationships. It
tells a story of how our moiety systems work. There are two
moieties in our system, Dhuwa and Yirritja. The Yolngu
system is all tied up or connected like the mat that is woven
and the values and beliefs that we have.  Banbapuy
Ganambarr
 
The spiral shows the life cycle – tells us how babies grow, their
arteries and their selves, both in the womb and as a baby grows
into a child and on through the generations. It starts as a small
baby girl and then as the basket grows so the baby girl grows up
until she’s a young mother and she’ll learn and have babies and
the knowledge and growth keeps spiraling. It cycles through the
generations, the woman becomes a grandmother with the
ongoing cycles and it keeps going. There’s no actual death, life
keeps spiraling on through the generations. Laklak Burarrwanga 
I say, it’s not a basket, it tells a story. Like
you might write a story in a book. But
without books, we have our hands and the
basket – the colours and patterns in a
basket are like letters, commas, capital
letters. They are the message. With the
different colours, the different stitchings …
Laklak Burarrwanga 
(Burarrwanga et al, 2008)
Is seeing believing? 
 

In matters such as art ‘seeing is believing’ is easily
replaced with ‘I know what I like’. 
 
Are the complex landscapes of resource
management really so different to complex landscape
represented through ‘art’? 
 
Is there any single, ‘objective’, ‘correct’ way of seeing
a resource management system?
 
Is seeing really believing when it comes
to professional resource management?  5
Task   %  Due Date  Linked
Learning
Outcomes
Linked
Graduate
Capabilities
Brief Description
1. Professional
submission
20%  Internals: due 5pm Mon 25 March 
Externals: received by COE by Wed 3 April
1,2,3,4  1,2,4,5,6  1000 word submission
2. Research
essay
 
40%  Internals: due 5pm Mon 6 May
Externals: received by COE by Mon 6 May 
1,2,3,4  1,2,3,5,6,7  2500 word research essay
3. Review
paper
25%  Internals: due 5pm Weds 12 June 
Externals: received by COE by Weds 12
June 
1,2,3,4  1,2,3,4,5,6,7  1000 word review
4. Tutorial
reading and
participation 
15%    1,2,3,4  1,2,3,4,5,6,7  Attending and participating
in tutorials/on-campus
session incl. the required
readings.
 
Assignment 1:  Professional Submission
 
Worth:  20%
Due:
• Internal:   
  due no later than 5pm Monday 25th March
• External:   
  received by COE by Wednesday 3rd April
 
Maximum word length:  1000 words (including
references, appendices and other documentation)
 
 
In this assignment you are required  to write a public submission commenting on
a particular proposal/strategy/guideline/agreement/policy. The
Submission needs to be of a professional standard in terms of writing and
research skills and it needs to draw on what you have learnt in ENVG340 to
date, including ways of seeing and thinking.
To write your submission you need to do the following:
1. Select a proposal/strategy/guideline/agreement/policy etc to review:
Many pieces of legislation  require that the government agencies
(Commonwealth, State, Territory and Local government) seek public opinion
when approving projects, adopting new guidelines, policies or strategies,
negotiating new agreements and so on. In this assignment you need to
research and write your own submission on one such
proposal/strategy/guideline/agreement/policy  that is relevant to resource
management. You can find a variety of environmental
proposals/strategies/guidelines/agreements/policies  that the public are invited
to make a submission on. For example see the following websites:


•   
 
 
2. Currency and submission
• I encourage you to select an issue that is current and to actually submit your
submission. This gives you a taste of what it will be like in many real world work
places – where the issues and outcomes are very real, as are the tight, non-
negotiable deadlines! The final assignment for the unit (the unit review) will
require you to reflect back on this process – why did you select the issue you
did? Did you actually submit your review? Why/why not? – so I encourage you to
keep a journal  reflecting on the process of doing this assignment. If you are not
concerned with making a submission on a current issue, your submission must
be on an issue under 1 year old (please note if you have pressing reasons to
review an issue that is older than one year you need to discuss this directly with
Jess).
3. Professional format:
• Most government websites contain instructions to the public on what is required
in their submission, please read and follow these guidelines  carefully.
• Use appropriate  referencing styles (we prefer Harvard, in-text referencing but you
may use other styles as long as you are consistent).
• Make sure you clearly identify  the issue you are making a submission on, the
body you are making your submission  to and your role in the community  in your
submission (please provide a web link to the issue you are making a submission
on).
 
 
 6
4. Critically review the item for your chosen audience. 
• Your submission must be critical and not just descriptive of the issue at hand.
Clearly and concisely you must:
– identify and evaluate the key points, arguments and values of the item
you are reviewing;  
– formulate your own argument and position in response to the item;
– discuss its relevance to you and key issues in ENVG340; 
– back your argument up with valid evidence (demonstrate  the foundation
for your argument);
– and include appropriate  recommendations.
– Stronger submissions will clearly draw on lessons you have learnt from
ENVG340 so far, in particular different ways of seeing and thinking.
• You must make it very clear to the reader of your submission what is your
description of the issue at hand, what is your critique of the issue and what
other sources you are drawing on as evidence for your argument/position.
 
This task requires you to use your research, understanding and communication
skills to provide information  to a target audience. It is not an academic essay,
but good writing and communication  is paramount (see marking criteria  in the
unit guide). 
 
 
Feedback from previous years …
Those who gained high marks indicated they were starting to understand the core
concerns and concepts of the course, and persuasively argued their position and
backed up their submission with reference to other literature and/or examples.
General comments and feedback:
A key aim of this course is critical thinking –don’t unquestionably accept data and
information  (especially  if you agree with it) but think about the data – where it is
from, what’s the author’s agenda, who’s writing it, for what purpose? This is a
particular  issue (but not restricted to) web-based material  
When forming an argument you need to back it up with further evidence
(references and examples).
People pay attention to structure. An introduction and conclusion are necessary
for most formats. Introductions should clearly outline what you’re doing and your
main argument THEN clearly outline HOW you’re going to argue it. The conclusion 
should restate your argument, and provide a summary of how you illustrated  it, and
discuss its broader significance.
Some people need to work on their writing, expression, language and
punctuation. This brought the grade down for some who made some excellent
points and arguments but were not expressing them effectively.  
Try and write as clearly and concisely as possible. Remember  to aim for short,
sharp sentences. 
PLEASE remember  to proof read your work – for readability and consistency!
(This is very important in professional life).
Whatever reference system you choose be CONSISTENT.
If you are referring to the Indigenous people of Australia then you have a
capital A for Aboriginal.  If you are referring to Indigenous people in general
or in other countries then you use the small ‘a’ – aboriginal.
Be CONSISTENT (especially  in relation to capital letter etc re
Government/government, Federal/federal etc.)
Referencing – important to acknowledge your use of other people’s work to
back up your argument. You must reference thoroughly and consistently.  
 
And finally make sure you USE your 340 tools – ways of seeing and thinking!!
 
Bibliography
Burarrwanga, L., Maymuru, D., Ganambarr, R., Ganambarr, B., Wright, S., Suchet-Pearson,
S. and Lloyd, K 2008 Weaving lives together at Bawaka, North East Arnhem Land.
CURS, University of Newcastle, Newcastle.
Massey, Doreen. 1984 Introduction: Geography matters. In Geography matters: A reader. D.
Massey and J. Allen. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 1-11.
Rocheleau, Dianne. 1995 Maps, Numbers, Text, and Context: Mixing Methods in Feminist
Political Ecology, Professional Geographer 47(4), 458-466
Rose, Debbie Bird. 1996 Nourishing Terrains: Australian Aboriginal Views of Landscape and
Wilderness. Australian Heritage Commission, Canberra.
 
Recommended Reading:
Howitt, R. (2001) Rethinking Resource Management: Justice, Sustainability and Indigenous
Peoples. Routledge, London CHAPTER ONE
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